I will be studying the amount of influence Supreme Court clerks have on the opinions of the justices they serve under. I hope to determine how much of an opinion is written by the justice and how much of it is the clerk’s own writing. Clerks are a significant part of the judicial system. They are found at nearly every level, serving under judges in order to give them more time to hear cases, rather than writing and filing smaller items 0f paperwork. However, even this smaller work can be legally complicated, such as drafting opinions that the court will issue or successfully comprehending a legal document being dictated by a judge, so many clerks, especially in higher courts, are either completing or have completed law school. As a result, they have their own thoughts on how rulings might be made. I mentioned earlier that they might be called upon to draft opinions. In the Supreme Court, many justices are old enough or frustrated enough that there are rumors that their clerks may not only draft their opinions, they may entirely write them. The possibility of shadow justices serving without consent of the Senate and without appointment by the president under aging, inexperienced, or disinterested justices is very interesting to me. There is a great deal of controversy surrounding bureaucratic discretion in the executive branch when it comes to enforcement of federal laws, but it is often taken for granted the judicial branch is run entirely by trusted and validated judges. If I can find a connection between opinions supposedly written by the most intellectual judges in the country and works written by their clerks, I could then conclude that the justice department too had its fair share of bureaucratic decision makers. The research I am proposing will, for reasons of time, only cover one or two clerks under an especially disengaged justice, such as Justice Thurgood Marshall during his later years of disinterest in the Court, or Justice Powell in 1971 during the period when he was too new to the bench to feel comfortable writing his own opinions in full.
Portraiture – the art of creating portraits – has developed into a wide array of subjects, mediums, and styles since its initial purpose of depicting royalty. However, the portraits that intrigue me the most employ inventive composition, color, and abstraction. I will record my observations, opinions, and analyses on the use of these three aspects from portraits and self-portraits from ancient to the present-day artists. Using the information from this initial survey of portraiture, I will create several portraits of my own using oil paint on canvas. During this process, I will continue to learn how to achieve the most effective composition, color, and abstraction as possible. The end goal through the research of others’ works and the creation of my own is an improved understanding of how to depict the human form in an engaging, creative, convincing, and observant way.
The modern Middle East has been a problem for the United States foreign policy establishment for several decades, especially following the terrorist attacks on 9/11. In recent years there seem to be more issues have arisen with the Arab spring and added instability in the region. Over the summer I will apply International Relations Theory to the Modern Middle East. First I will determine what the most important four or five problems in the Middle East from the perspective of the United States by examining news and scholarly articles. Next I will study the background for each of situation and look into which strategies had already been tried. After studying the problem I will look at what different International Relations theories would recommend in each different situation.
Both physical and mental health are a growing problem in the United States. With obesity and depression levels on the rise, it is essential for Americans to assess their current ways of life, and to make immediate (and often quite simple) changes. I have personally found that my mood on any given day is directly correlated with how much time I have spent outside, or how much time I have spent exercising my body. I want to find out if this is true for others.