Part Two: China and the Democratic Peace Thesis

I am in no way an expert on China’s politics. In fact, I never even had the chance to take a course on Chinese politics while I was in high school, and it was a required course for 90% of the students. For research purposes, I ended up looking for materials in the “reddest” parts of the bookstore and library, which was actually quite enjoyable. But then I realized the information I had taken so long to collect was mostly irrelevant to this project, so I tagged the section I wrote on the structure of the Chinese government to the end of this report as an appendix. This part of my project is dedicated to answering the question of whether China is a state that can be considered a “smurf” based on the results I obtained from the first part of my project (see here). This part turned out to be incredibly short, unlike the first part.

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An Analysis on Ottoman Trade and Its Effects on the Longevity of the Empire Update 2

As a quick summary for those of you who haven’t read any of my previous posts, my project this summer is to analyze the effects of Ottoman trade on the longevity of the empire, as the title of my post entails.  It has been traditionally assumed that the Ottoman Empire was in a state of decline from roughly the late 16th century all the way through the 20th century.  This is very long state of decline, that can only be understood through relativity.  In other words, the Ottoman Empire was in a state of decline in comparison to Western Europe.  As I am unable to really look at primary sources due to my limited language abilities, my analysis will be more through historiography than anything else.

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Research Update 2: A History of the Passing Game in Pro Football

Pre-NFL (1880-1919)

While the roots of American Football can be traced back to the 17th century, the game as we know it today did not really begin to take shape until 1880. While the first game of intercollegiate “American Football” was famously played between Rutgers and Yale in 1869, it hardly resembled today’s game. Beginning in 1880, Walter Camp, the “Father of American Football” added stability to the game at annual intercollegiate rules conferences. He proposed that the number of players on the field at a time be reduced from 15 to 11 from each team. He also added the line of scrimmage and the snap from center to quarterback to add form and order to the game. In 1882 he proposed the first down and distance rules, originally requiring an offense to travel a minimum of five yards in three plays; a failure to do so would be a turnover.

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